Civil and Environmental Engineering

statically indeterminate structure 1

Statically indeterminate structures are structures that cannot be analyzed using statics, or equations of equilibrium only; they require other material properties. The degree of indeterminacy is the number of unknown reactions minus the number of equations of equilibrium.

surveying practice 1 levelling 2

Successful surveying depends on having a clear purpose for the survey. It is not just about collecting the right kind of evidence, but also being able to focus it to meet the requirements of the instruction

surveying practice 2

The maintenance of the surveyor?s role within current statutory instruction is also important. While these statutes are covered in greater detail in other isurv sections

Surveying practices study of prismatic compass

Prismatic compass survey is the kind of prismatic compass survey used only to determine the angles identified as bearing as well as the range is determined by the measuring tape.

statically indeterminate structure 2

Statically indeterminate structures are solved by the displacement method as if unknown displacements and rotations were chosen. From a system of equilibrium equation

statically indeterminate structure 3

The concept of stiffness matrix, introduced in Ch. 7, will be used for a structural stiffness matrix assembly and it is a foundation for the displacement and later the finite element method.

statically indeterminate structure 4

As high-order statically indeterminate structures, arch dams possess good ultimate bearing capacity because the internal load can be adjusted between arches and cantilevers

Deflection of beams

Deflection, in structural engineering terms, means the movement of a beam or node from its original position.

Theorey of simple bending

When a beam is subjected to a loading system or by a force couple acting on a plane passing through the axis, then the beam deforms

surveying GPS 1

GPS or Global Positioning System was developed and is maintained by the US Department of Defense. Since the introduction of GPS many other countries

surveying GPS 2

Initially developed for military use, GPS is now part of everyday life. A few of the many things that GPS is used in include: mobile phones

modern surveying instrument 1

Modern surveying instruments provides faster and more precise surveying than conventional instruments

surveying curve 1

Curves are defined as arcs, with some finite radius, provided between intersecting straights to gradually negotiate a change in direction

surveying curve 2

Curves are generally used on highways and railways where it is necessary to change the direction of motion

techeometric surveying 1

Tacheometric is a branch of surveying in which horizontal and vertical distances are determined by taking angular observation with an instrument known as a tachometer.

tacheometric srveying 2

Tacheometric surveying is adopted in rough in rough and difficult terrain where direct leveling and chaining are either not possible or very tedious

trignometrical surveying 1

The Great Trigonometrical Survey was a project which aimed to survey the entire Indian subcontinent with scientific precision. It was begun in 1802 by the British infantry officer William Lambton, under the auspices of the East India Company

trigmometrical surveying 2

Among the many accomplishments of the Survey were the demarcation of the British territories in India and the measurement of the height of the Himalayan giants: Everest, K2, and Kanchenjunga